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Sunday, 22 May 2011

Year 1816 Colonies of Annette & Josephine

Rinas, Missal, Chausee, Josephine, Annette, Kujat, Th. Biberdorf, Moller, Kirche, Klein, Glasmann, J.Paul, Drude, Krause, Bonefaki, Henke, Albertin, Polischuk, Jarunj, Chutor Maistrowo G. Paul, Stradtland, Nataliendorf, Nach Kol.


  1. Annette (Anety/Aneta), Novohrad-Volynskyi, Zhytomyr, Russian Empire (Ukraine) 503430 273030 Анета

  2. The Parish of Zhitomir (1801)
    Although a Lutheran Church was established in Koretz (Korist) in 1783 by Prince Czartoryski, it was Zhitomir that became the seat of a parish for Volhynia in 1801. In that year Alexander I decreed that Volhynia should have a Lutheran pastor there who would receive an annual government stipend of 400 Rubles. It was a parish of about 33,000 square miles.

    Worshippers met in homes and rented buildings in Zhitomir until a chapel and manse were built in 1854. A stone church was not built until 1896. The pastor served all the new German colonies in Volhynia as they developed.

    Annette and Josephine were first, in 1816, and later, after the 1831 uprising in Poland, colonies arose in the counties of Rowno and Luzk. Daughter colonies of Annette and Josephine grew up between Nowograd-Wolynsk and Zhitomir. By 1859 the area was home to about 6,000 Germans and 45 German colonies.

    A great influx of settlers in the 1860s, especially after the Polish Rebellion of 1863, placed a great burden on the pastor in Zhitomir, who could visit each colony only once a year. This made it, in the words of the 1909 publication, an "easy game" for the Baptists in the area, and made it necessary to begin breaking down this huge parish into smaller units. In the "first round" of parish formation, the Parish of Roshischtsche was formed in 1863, and the Parish of Heimtal followed in 1869.

    All Volhynian villages were in Zhitomir Parish before 1863. Apart from those in Roshischtsche Parish, all other Volhynian villages were in Zhitomir Parish between 1863 and 1869.
    Pastors in Zhitomir Parish
    1801 – 1825 Georg Burchardt von RUHL
    1826 – 1841 Johannes Gottfried BECKER
    1842 – 1866 Peter STELZ
    1869 – 1907 Heinrich Martin David WASEM
    1907 – 1914 Johannes Theodor Ernst BARTH
    1926 – 1931 Nikolai Adolf TOMBERG
    1933 – Gustav UHLE

    Donald N. Miller
    When World War I broke out on August 1, 1914, the Germans in Volhynia were not particularly worried about being deported. It probably never even crossed their minds. But they were concerned about the possibility of losing their land. Already in 1910 the Russian Government introduced legislation in the Duma in an attempt to put a limit on the acquisition of new land on the part of foreigners, including those of German origin. The debate went back and forth for a number of years. Finally on February 2, 1915 the government issued an Expropriation Decree to liquidate the land of all Russian subjects of German descent (also Austrian and Hungarian) within certain boundary zones. This encompassed all of Poland and Volhynia. The land was to be voluntarily sold within a 10-month period. Land not liquidated within that time period was to be sequestered until auctioned off, with the Peasant Land Bank as the privileged purchaser. The bank had the right to fix its own price and terms. They determined not to pay cash for the land, but with registered bonds redeemable in 25 years, which was a good deal on their part. Almost immediately after passage of the law, local authorities were authorized to implement the law. Many farmers protested and appealed the action, including Adolph. A. Schultz, my grandfather, but without success.
    In the meantime, with the advance of the German army, the Russian government took advantage of the situation, and ordered the evacuation of all those living in Volhynia (and Poland) on the pretext that the Germans were carrying on espionage for Germany behind Russian lines. It was hoped that this would automatically take care of the “German problem,” (including land ownership), once and for all. As a result the Germans were thrust out of Poland as early as May and the order for the evacuation of those living in Volhynia was given in the middle of June. The evacuation was to be swift and the Germans were to be across the border by the tenth of the month. While most colonists were given two weeks to prepare for the trek, some were required to move out in just a few hours notice. Pastors, teachers, judges and other influential community leaders were immediately taken hostage to assure the orderly withdrawal of the German population. Wives and children of men serving in the Russian army were allowed to remain temporarily, but eventually they, too, were ordered out. In a matter of just a few weeks over 7,000 families were expelled.
    The people were allowed to take whatever their wagons could carry. The police escorted them on their first leg of journey. At the end of the wagon trek, the people were forced to sell their horses and wagons for a pittance of what they were worth and board railroad cars to continue the trip. Since there were many
    hardships and deprivations along the way, many people fell victim to hunger, sickness, especially typhoid fever, and death. Many children were born in wagons and boxcars and the dead were hurriedly buried by the side of the road.
    The deportees were transported over many thousands of km and eventually unloaded in Siberia, Central Asia and the Ural region, although some were allowed to settle in Ukraine and Russia, some miles from home. In their new and strange environment they were required to work at a variety of jobs in order to survive. Most of them fared badly, but with the fall of the Tsarist government in 1917, they soon began trickling back home. The majority returned in 1918, though some did not make it back until 1920 and later. No sooner was one war finished than another began. It was called the Civil War between the Whites and the Reds. During this time the Volhynians were caught in the in-fighting and had to defend themselves as there was no longer any authority. At the same time the Volhynians were often caught in the chaotic upheavals between the newly resurrected Poland and Russia.
    (Excerpt from the book The Old Country by Donald N. Miller)

    The list of those whose land was to be expropriated originally appeared in the Volhyn’s Gubernia News (No. 56) on June 2, 1916. It is important to remember that this is a land expropriation listing, not a deportation listing, although most, if not all of the people whose land was taken away from them, were eventually deported. Even then the list is not 100% complete or accurate, as a number of discrepancies in the various newspaper listings have been found. Some corrections of the most obvious errors have been made in this listing. The list has also been culled of duplicate and undecipherable names. Also, only the landowners or their heirs are listed, not renters, which means that there were many more German colonists living within these boundary zones when the law took effect than what is found here.
    This lists identifies the name of the head of the family, including the patronymic name (father’s name), and the family name. In the original newspaper article, the name of the village where the land was located and the amount of land expropriated is also given. In 1993 I originally obtained the listing of the landowners in the newspaper from the State Archives in Zhitomir and made it available to the American Historical Society of Germans from Russia in Lincoln, Nebraska. It was subsequently was translated by Brent Alan Mai of Purdue University (1997). It should be noted that where a name is not certain, it is followed by a single question mark. (Editor’s note: The listing of names is used by permission of AHSGR and Brent Mai, May 2005).

  5. Do you happen to have the source of the village plat map shown above? Looks like it's from a book.


  6. Rothe! Will you please send me the title of the book that includes the maps you have above here. I have ancestors that were born in Nataliendorf (Annette). I would love to read any books you recommmend. I appreciate all the work you are doing. Excellent research.